In social determinants of health research, what’s sometimes known as ‘upstream’ change – that’s change within government and policy – is viewed as a far more effective and efficient intervention point for addressing the social determinants of health than ‘downstream’ measures which target communities or individuals [, , ]. Many of the then when action centres around the ‘determinants of health’, instead of health itself [, ]. Upstream action is more and more emphasised in addition to programs or interventions targeted at individuals or community groups [, , ]. It is because the social determinants of health are actually understood to be prone to the organisation of fabric and social sources among the people of societies, that is best addressed through government action .
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