## Typical Purposes of Cellular Automata

## 1. Introduction

The prior paper, "How Cellular Automata Work," described the idea of cellular automata and shown the surprising complexity that may leave simple cellular automata systems. This paper explains how cellular automata could be offer work. First, it shows how cellular automata could be directly accustomed to create multimedia content, to create random figures, in order to build parallel computers. The primary area of the paper then explains the main use for cellular automata: modeling and studying natural systems, including existence itself. The ultimate section describes what's most likely the very best-known modeling use of cellular automata the field of artificial existence.

## 2. Generating Multimedia Content

Among the apparent fascinations of cellular automata would be the complex and frequently beautiful patterns that they'll generate. Some unusual examples is visible at Rudy Rucker's [12] web site at http://www.cs.sjsu.edu/faculty/rucker/capow/examples.html. These cellular automata images range from CAPOW (Cellular Automata & Electrical Power) research study, that involves using continuous valued cellular automata to simulate the flow of electricity inside a power company. (As pointed out in the last paper, cellular automata normally have an important quantity of discrete states, however the states can in addition have a continuous selection of possible values.)

Based on Bottoni, Cammilli, and Faralli [9], cellular automata may be used by computer artists to create visual or acoustic patterns for art or presentations. Bottoni et al. have produced a credit card applicatoin referred to as ExcapeMe (Extended Cellular Automata with Pluggable Multimedia Elements), that you can use by computer artists as along with researchers and students studying cellular automata dynamics to generate multimedia content by rendering cellular automata.

## 3. Cryptography and Random Number Generation

Cellular automata may serve as an origin of random figures that can be used for encrypting messages, running simulations, along with other purposes.

Based on Sarkar 2000 [5], the configurations of the succession of cellular automata generations can be used an arbitrary sequence. One-dimensional cellular automata are usually used for this function. Sarkar cites several specific applications which have been suggested for cellular automata generated random figures, including private key cryptosystems, public key cryptosystems, and hash functions.

Wolfram [8] further reveals the random number generator employed for large integers in the Mathematica product is based on the elementary cellular automata referred to as Rule 30, that was described in the last paper (in "4. Other kinds of Cellular Automata"). Wolfram claims that this specific cellular automata type can be used like a random number generator because of the fact that her intriguing and helpful property to be chaotic.

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## 4. Applying Parallel Computers

As discussed in the last paper, some cellular automata possess the property of universal computation, meaning in principle they are able to perform arbitrary computations. Based on Wolfram [10], this property might be in excess of theoretical interest, and can allow cellular automata to create an architectural model for building practical parallel-processing computers. The homogeneity of cellular automata (certainly one of their fundamental qualities which was discussed in the last paper) would permit cellular automata to become readily implemented using integrated circuits. For instance, it may be easy to fabricate on one plastic nick one-dimensional, computationally-universal cellular automata about millions of cells along with a time step of approximately a billionth of the second. The homogeneous, one-dimensional structure from the cellular automata will make finding defects easy.

However, Wolfram [10] also highlights that programming a cellular automata computer will need a significantly new programming approach. He shows that new programming technologies focus initially on problem domains that cellular automata are inherently appropriate, for example image processing.

## 5. Modeling and Simulation

Cellular automata, as implemented on computers, may be used to model a multitude of complex biological and physical systems [7]. Although a lot of natural systems for example, turbulence in fluids or even the formation of snowflakes can be examined using traditional mathematical models for example differential equations, cellular automata frequently give a simpler tool that preserves the essence from the process through which complex natural patterns emerge [11]. Based on Wolfram [10], cellular automata are inherently more effective at analyzing many natural systems than traditional computational methods since the mechanisms present in most basic systems are nearer to individuals of cellular automata rather than individuals of conventional computation.

The complex global patterns and behavior of a range of cellular automata leave the straightforward laws and regulations included in the person cells. Thus, cellular automata are specifically appropriate for modeling any system that consists of simple components, in which the global behavior from the system depends upon the behaviour and native interactions of the baby components. Listed here are some specific types of biological and physical systems which have been effectively modeled using cellular automata:

- Gas behavior. (A gas consists of individual molecules, the behaviour being determined by neighboring molecules.)
- Ferromagnetism. (A magnetic material includes a network of nodes, in which the magnetic condition of every node that is, the direction of electron spin depends around the condition from the neighboring nodes.)
- Forest fire propagation.
- Urban development.
- Turbulence in fluids [10] .
- Immunology and biological ageing.
- The flow of electricity inside a power company [12]. (It was discussed in "2. Multimedia Generation.")
- Crystallization.
- Existence itself. (This is actually the subject from the next section.)

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## 6. Artificial Existence

The concept of *artificial existence* tries to model biological existence or even going to create a man-made type of existence on a pc. One of the greatest purpose of this pursuit would be to figure out how complex systems, for example existence forms, can emerge inside a world in which the increase of entropy is among the most fundamental laws and regulations. [2] Artificial existence is probably the best-known use of cellular automata [4].

Cellular automata are a perfect tool for that computer modeling of existence since they're similar to existence in fundamental ways. Namely, cellular automata derive from simple rules that complex existence-like behavior including self-reproduction can emerge because of the right conditions (just like an appropriate lambda value), just like existence seems to possess emerged from easy molecules with evolution pushing the molecular precursors of just living systems toward the best conditions where complexity could emerge. [2]

### 6.1 Self-Reproduction of Cellular Automata

Probably the most important qualities that cellular automata must exhibit to be able to model existence is self-reproduction. John von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam made the very first tries to create self-reproducing cellular automata. (They initially known as cellular automata

cellular spaces.) Von Neumann's self-reproducing cellular automata, however, were very complex. They needed 29 states and may 't be implemented around the computers of his day.

Christopher Langton, among the chief founders of the concept of artificial existence, been successful in creating much easier cellular automata that displayed a self-reproducing loop structure and needed only 8 states and 29 rules. He could create simpler self-reproducing cellular automata chiefly while he abandoned von Neumann's original requirement that self-reproducing cellular automata possess the property of computational universality [5].

The opportunity to create cellular automata that exhibit self-reproduction is theoretically interesting since it shows that among the essential qualities of just living systems namely, self-reproduction can derive from the neighborhood interactions of easy elements and could be modeled and studied using abstract, logical models aside from biological existence.

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## 7. Conclusion

Cellular automata may be used straight to create visual or acoustic multimedia content, to create random figures for cryptography or any other purposes, and perhaps to construct parallel computers. The main use for cellular automata, however, would be to model physical and biological systems. Cellular automata can frequently function as simpler tools for modeling systems than traditional mathematical methods. Perfect for modeling systems that like cellular automata themselves are made up of simple components that manifest complex behavior. A couple of examples are gas phenomena, urban development, immunological processes, and crystallization. The very best known use of cellular automata, however, is modeling living systems. This application may be the province from the emerging field of artificial existence, that is worried about modeling biological existence or perhaps creating a man-made type of existence on the computer, so that they can fathom the mystery from the emergence of complex existence forms inside a world of growing entropy.

## 8. Reference List

[1] Dewdney, A.K. (1985). "Computer Recreations: Building Computers in a single Dimension Sheds Light on Irreducibly Complicated Phenomena", Scientific American, Volume 252, May 1985.

[2] Eck, D.J. (2006). "Cellular Automata And also the Fringe of Chaos", Retrieved from http://math.hws.edu/xJava/CA/.

[3] Holland, J.H. (1998). *Emergence: From Chaos to buy*. New You are able to: Fundamental Books, Perseus Books Group.

[4] Rennard, J.P. (2006). "Introduction to Cellular Automata", Retrieved from http://www.rennard.org/alife/british/acgb.html.

[5] Sarkar, P. (2000). "A Brief Good reputation for Cellular Automata", ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), Volume 32, Issue 1.

[6] Weisstein, E.W. (2006). "Cellular Automaton", Retrieved from http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CellularAutomaton.html.

[7] Wolfram, S. (1982). "Cellular Automata as basic Self-Organizing Systems", Caltech Preprint CALT-68-938 (posted to Nature).

[8] Wolfram, S. (2002). *A Brand New Type of Science*. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media, Corporation.

[9] Bottoni, P., Cammilli, M., & Faralli, S. (2004)."Generating Multimedia Quite happy with Cellular Automata", IEEE MultiMedia, Volume 11, Issue 4.

[10] Wolfram, S. (1983). "Cellular Automata", Los Alamos Science, Volume 9, Fall 1983, 2-21.

[11] Wolfram, S. (1984). "Computer Software in Science and Mathematics", Scientific American, Volume 251, September 1984.

[12] Rucker, R. (2006).

URL:http://mjyonline.com/CellularAutomataUses.htm

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